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مهندسی برق-قدرت - هماهنگی عایقی با برقگیرها
مهندسی برق-قدرت
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همانطوری که گفته شد برقگیرها وظیفه حفاظت تجهیزات را در مقابل اضافه ولتاژهای گذرای صاعقه و کلیدزنی بعهده دارند شکل 27 نشان دهنده سطوح ولتاژی ممکن برای یک وسیله فشارقوی می­باشد. این شکل در واقع مفهوم هماهنگی عایقی در یک شبکه 400کیلوولت با نقطه نوترال زمین شده بطور موثر را نشان می­دهد.

برقگیر

منحنی سینوسی ابتدایی همان ولتاژ عادی سینوسی شبکه می­باشد محور TOV نشان­ دهنده ولتاژ موقت فرکانس قدرت شبکه است که چون ولتاژها براساس پریونیت بیان شده­اند همان Ce می­باشد در محدود A فرض بر وجود شرایط عادی است و در محدوده B فرض بر بروز یک اتصال کوتاه تکفاز در سیستم شده است.

منحنی b لحظه عملکرد برقگیر در اثر رخداد یک اضافه ولتاژ گذرا صاعقه می­باشد، LIWL همان سطح استقامت عایقی در برابر موج صاعقه یا همان BIL (BASIC LIGHTNING INSULATION LEVEL) است و LIPL سطح حفاظت عایقی در برابر موج صاعقه (LIGHTNING IMPLUSE PROTECTION LEVEL) می­باشد. CL یا CPL فاصله ایمنی تا ولتاژ صاعقه (SAFETY MARGIN FROM LIWL) را بیان می­کند.

SIWL همان سطح استقامت عایقی در برابر موج کلید زنی یا (BSL – BASIC SWITCHING INSULATION LEVEL) می­باشد و SIPL سطح حفاظت عایقی در برابر موج صاعقه (SWITHCHING IMPULSE PROTECTION LEVEL) است. CS یا CPS فاصله ایمنی تا ولتاژ کلیدزنی (SAFETY MARGIN FROM SIWL) را بیان می­کند.

از این شکل مشخص است که اولاً حداکثر ولتاژ موقت که برقگیر می­تواند تحمل کند باید برابر TOV باشد ضمناً مشخص می­شود که با بروز اضافه ولتاژ صاعقه یا اضافه ولتاژ کلیدزنی، برقگیر عمل می­نماید و ولتاژ را در سطح پائین­تر از حد قابل تحمل ولتاژ صاعقه یا کلیدزنی تجهیزات محدود می­کند لذا با بروز اضافه ولتاژهای حتی بالاتر از حد تحمل تجهیزات با عملکرد برقگیر و محدود شدن ولتاژهای گذرا مشکلی برای تجهیزات پیش نخواهد آمد. در واقع با هماهنگی عایقی مابین تجهیزات از سطح استقامت عایق تجهیزات مطمئن هستیم و با قرار دادن برقگیرهای مناسب فاصله ایمنی لازم را برای تجهیزات ایجاد می­کنیم.





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